The Effect Principal Use of Power On Teacher Empowerment

Research Question(s) or Hypotheses

This study will investigate the construct principals’ use of power has on the level of perceived teacher empowerment. It will seek to investigate what dimensions of teacher empowerment (transitional leaders, self-efficacy, motivation, schools as communities, and power) can best predict the aforementioned variables. Finally, the study will seek to examine any disparity between school leaders’ and teachers’ perceptions of teacher empowerment. The following research questions and hypotheses guided the empirical investigation:

Research Question(s) and Phenomenon or Research Questions, Hypotheses, and Variables

Independent Variable 1: Gender (Male and female Teachers)

Independent Variable 2: Educational level (Bachelors, Masters >)

Independent Variable 3: Classroom experience (0-5 years, 6 >)

Dependent Variable 1: Perceived principal’s power (coercive, reward, legitimate, information, expert, and referent)

Dependent Variable 2: Perceived teacher empowerment (decision making, professional growth, status, self-efficacy, autonomy, and impact)

R1: What differences exist in male and female teachers about their perceptions of power used by their principals?

1H1: Perception of principal’s power in male teachers is higher to female teachers.

1H0: Male and female teachers perceive principal’s power equally.

R2: What differences exist in teacher schooling about their perceptions of power used by their principals?

2H1: Perception of principal’s power in more schooled teachers is greater to less schooled teachers.

2H0: More and less schooled teachers perceive principal’s power equally.

R3: What differences exist in teachers classroom experience about their perceptions of power used by their principals?

3H1: Perception of principal’s power is greater in teachers with longer classroom service than teachers with shorter service.

3H0: Teachers with longer or shorter classroom service perceive principal’s power equally.

R4: How do male and female teachers perceive differences in their empowerment?

4H1: Perception of empowerment in male teachers is higher to female teachers.

1H0: Male and female teachers perceive their empowerment equally.

R5: How do schooled teachers perceive differences in their empowerment?

5H1: Perception of empowerment in more schooled teachers is greater to less schooled teachers.

5H0: More and less schooled teachers perceive their empowerment equally.

R6: How do experienced teachers perceive differences in their empowerment?

6H1: Perception of empowerment is greater in teachers with longer classroom service than teachers with shorter service.

6H0: Teachers with longer or shorter classroom service perceive their empowerment equally.

R7: How do principal’s power and perception of teacher’s perceive differences in their empowerment impacted by gender?

7H1: Perception of principal’s power and perception of teacher’s empowerment will be inversely related for gender.

7H0: Perception of principal’s power and perception of teacher’s empowerment will not be associated for gender.

R8: How do principal’s power and perception of teacher’s perceive differences in their empowerment impacted by education?

8H1: Perception of principal’s power and perception of teacher’s empowerment will be inversely related for educational level.

8H0: Perception of principal’s power and perception of teacher’s empowerment will not be associated for educational level.

R9: How do principal’s power and perception of teacher’s perceive differences in their empowerment impacted by experience?

9H1: Perception of principal’s power and perception of teacher’s empowerment will be inversely related for classroom service.

9H0: Perception of principal’s power and perception of teacher’s empowerment will not be associated for classroom service.

 

 

 

Research Methodology

To empirically address questions posed in this research, a quantitative research methodology would be the best suited for it is concerned with gathering numerical data to explain a particular phenomenon or questions (Lintner, 2008). Quantitative research is used to determine the relationship between independent and dependent or outcome variables in a sample and generalize it to a population; and include descriptive-inferential analyses to establish causality (Creswell, 2005).  Quantitative methods are characterized by the type of data that will be collected and by the type of information that can be analyzed, which is numerical, and the findings can be typically reported using statistics, tables and graphs. The purpose of quantitative research is to exam pre-determined hypotheses and produce generalizable results (Marshall, 1996).

A quantitative design was chosen to test the independent theories that will be investigating the relationship associated with the relationship between principals’ power and perceived teacher power. These variables can then be measured by using instruments specifically designed for a given study, so numerical data can be examined through the use of statistical analysis (Creswell, 2008). The study will involve collecting numerical data that looks at the association, between how teachers perceive principal power and empowerment and ascertain the effects of selected independent variable (gender, level of education, and experience) on the above two dependent variables.

Quantitative methods are concerned with prediction as well as designed to maximize generalizability of findings reliability, and objectivity. Quantitative methods are frequently described as deductive in nature, in the sense that inferences from tests of statistical hypotheses lead to general inferences about characteristics of a population. Quantitative methods are also frequently characterized as assuming that there is a single “truth” that exists, independent of human perception (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Trochim and Land (1982) define quantitative design as the “glue that holds the research project together. A design is used to structure the research, to show how all of the major parts of the research project—the samples or groups, measures, treatments or programs, and methods of assignment—work together to try to address the central research questions.” (p. 1) The use of quantitative design also allows the findings as a set structure consisting of introduction, literature and theory, methods, results, and discussion (Creswell, 2008).

Research Design

The study will empirically examine possible relationships by observing preexisting paradigms or variables while exploring potential correlational factors, the combined research methodologies were deemed appropriate for the study (Leedy, 1989; Kirika, 2011). This quantitative study will use a mixed method methodology to test several hypotheses. Additional rationale for choosing to use the aforementioned methods is the high probability of answering research questions under investigation and the fact that they have been used successfully by other researchers (Hager, Scribner, Srichai, & Truell, 2001; Rinehart & Short, 1990; Rinehart & Short, 1992; Kirika, 2011).

From the belvedere of many behavioral scientists, statistics are available tools that can be used to untangle the anonymities of data composed through the use of research methods (Shavelson, 1988; Kirika). Shavelson (1988) stated that “a researcher’s main interest is in the substance of the study, there is interplay between the substance, the design of the study, and the analysis of the data.” This means a healthier understanding of the utilitarian problems under examination is essential as well as the comprehension of a array of research designs and the selection of a design that will be best suitable for the essential issues or phenomenon under analysis (Shavelson, 1988; Kirika).

A mixed research methodology will be employed as a means of analyzing the survey data. A Canonical Correlation will be used because of the multivariate nature of both principal power and teacher empowerment. Additionally, a separate Regression Analysis will be conducted on the three independent variables (length of classroom experience, level of education, and gender) the help comprehend which, if any, may be related to the dependent variable, and to what extent. Survey data will be collected from K-12 public school teacher in three South Carolina school districts.

 

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