Journal entry

Please note on this journal entry add I would like to become probation officer or Community safety Officer, then explain my learning from this module resulted in changed behaviour/performance/perspectives? In what areas – Study/Work/Home life? Give specific examples
Has it helped your career? How – be specific
Is there room for further development in any of the topics covered?
use this on each Unit 1 and 2, Unit 3 and 4 and 5 and 6 , Unit 7 and 8

University Assignment
This week you will have the opportunity to reflect back on what you have learned during the module, and how you plan to apply this new-found knowledge, as you write your Journal Report.
When writing your Journal Report, please consider the following:
The Journal Entries you submitted to the Journal each fortnight
Has your learning from this module resulted in changed behaviour/performance/perspectives? In what areas – Study/Work/Home life? Give specific examples
Has it helped your career? How – be specific
Is there room for further development in any of the topics covered?
Instruction to writer and style
1) Unit 1 and 2
Unit 1: The History and Theory of Victimology
This unit will consider the history of victimology, in the first instance by providing a definition of victimology and tracing its development as a subject of study since the middle of the twentieth century. In this context, the increasing focus on the victim within the criminal justice system alongside the increasing credibility and popularity of victimology within academia will be reflected upon. Various theories of victimology will be considered, including theories which emphasise socio-economic power relations in society, feminist theories, and critical theories of criminology.
In this unit we shall:
Consider how to define victimology
Review the history of victimology
Reflect upon reasons for the increasing focus on the victim
Examine various victimology theories
Reflect upon the process of victimisation
Unit 2: Definitions and Data
The term ‘victim’ often has connotations of weakness, vulnerability and innocence. These connotations often inform popular opinion and the work of those working in the Criminal Justice System, not least due to the influence of the media. Such connotations can problematise conceptions of young men as victims of violent crime, for instance, even though they are more likely to be the victim (and the perpetrator) of street crime. Such connotations can also problematise conceptions of ethnic or racial minorities, the homeless, those with poor mental health, or (especially) those with a criminal record or perceived deviant lifestyle, for instance, as (legitimate or sympathy-deserving) victims of crime. Youth are also regularly portrayed by the media as being out of control or threatening the social order – consider today’s hoodies and yesterday’s mods and rockers – although children are often more at risk of violent crimes than others.
Certain crimes – notably rape – also appear to assign the victim a certain amount of blame. Victims of some other crimes – such as crimes of the state, environmental crime or corporate crime – often deny or hide the existence of a victim. This ultimately has consequences for the way the Criminal Justice System and the wider society treats certain victims of crime, with those who fit into the stereotype often being afforded more recognition, support and consideration.
This unit considers the definition of the victim of crime and its associated connotations. It also looks at methods of gathering crime data from victims of crime – specifically the British Crime Survey – as a means of gathering more accurate data on the crime rate than police crime data.
In this unit we shall:
Consider the definition of the term ‘victim of crime’
Consider the term’s connotations of weakness, vulnerability and innocence
Question the use and application of the term to different categories of people and in respect of different types of crime
Critically evaluate the implications of the subjective use of the term in respect of the responsibility of the Criminal Justice System and wider society
Consider the use and value of the British Crime Survey in soliciting data from victims of crime and portraying a more accurate picture of crime than police crime data
On completion of this unit you will be able to:
Reflect upon your own understanding of who are the victims of crime
Be familiar with less evident victims of crime
Understand the implications of the traditional connotations of the term ‘victim’
Recognise the responsibility of the agencies of the Criminal Justice System to all victims of crime
Assess the value of the British Crime Survey
2) Unit 3 and 4
Unit 3: Social Inequalities, Vulnerability and Victimisation
As indicated in the previous unit, there are certain groups of people to whom the label ‘victim’ seems to more easily fit. This unit considers whether certain groups of people are more prone to criminal victimisation than others. Specifically, this unit looks at whether there is a direct correlation between social inequalities, vulnerability and victimisation. In particular, the vulnerability of women and children will be reflected upon. There will also be some consideration given to poverty and whether or not this has a disproportionate affect on the likelihood of criminal victimisation.
Some of the studies you will read reveal that those who are more vulnerable and/or marginalised in society, rather than being afforded additional and appropriate protection, are often more likely to be a victim of crime, particularly violent crime in the home. However, as was referred to in the previous unit, the relationship between vulnerability, risk and victimisation is not simple. Young men are, in fact, much more likely to be the victim of violent street crime. However, victims of violence in the home are much more likely to be women and children and many of these crimes are likely to remain hidden and part of the ‘dark figure’ of crime.
In respect of violence against women and girls, rape and domestic violence will be looked at, recognising that such crimes also affect men and boys. This unit will also reflect upon the criminal victimisation of children and consider why we are often surprised at the extent of that victimisation.
In this unit we shall:
Examine whether there are links between social inequalities, vulnerability and criminal victimisation
Reflect upon violent crimes against women, specifically rape and domestic violence
Consider the nature and extent of the criminal victimisation of children
Consider whether abject poverty increases the risk of criminal victimisation
Examine responses to the criminal victimisation of women and children
On completion of this unit you will be able to:
Assess whether there are links between social inequalities, vulnerability and criminal victimisation
Be familiar with the extent and nature of violence against women and children
Understand some of the links between poverty and criminal victimisation
Evaluate responses to the criminal victimisation of women and children
Propose ways in which to more effectively respond to the criminal victimisation of women and children

Unit 4
Unit 4: Hate Crimes
Continuing from the previous unit, this unit considers those crimes where vulnerable, marginal or excluded groups are often disproportionately affected. Specifically, this unit focuses on those crimes that are explicitly targeted at the intended victim because of the perceived membership of the target in a particular social group.
While anyone can be targeted because of their perceived identity, victims of hate crimes are often members of specific racial, ethnic or religious groups. Victims are also often disabled people, transgendered people, and gay, lesbian or bisexual people, among others. Victims of hate crime often suffer more psychological harm than those who suffer similar crimes without the motivation associated with hate crimes. Victims are often reluctant to report such crimes or seek support, precisely because of the nature of the crime and fear of further victimisation.
Coupled with the previous unit’s consideration of crimes against women and children – as well as against those who are poor and homeless, for instance – when considering the extent of the criminal victimisation of vulnerable, marginal and excluded groups, it will be asked whether enough is being done to protect those most vulnerable to risk and harm. Society’s reluctance to recognise many victims of crime will also be reflected upon, particularly in the context of a society that tends to acknowledge and, at times, sensationalise, the many and varied commonplace risks that exist.
In this unit we shall:
Consider the concept and nature of hate crimes
Reflect upon religiously and ethnically motivated hate crimes
Consider hate crimes targeted at disabled people
Examine the responses of the relevant authorities to hate crimes
Explore what can be done to support victims of hate crimes
On completion of this unit you will be able to:
Define hate crimes
Be familiar with the nature and targets of hate crimes
Be cognisant of the harm inflicted upon victims of hate crimes
Evaluate the responses of the relevant authorities to hate crimes
Assess ways in which victims of hate crimes could be better supported
3) Unit 5 and 6
Unit 5: Criminal Victimisation
In this unit we will look closer at criminal victimisation and consider the effects of being a victim of crime on the victim him or herself. In particular, we will look at the psychological effects of criminal victimisation, particularly the effects of violent crime. Such effects can have long-lasting and far-reaching effects, as some of the recommended reading highlights. Being a victim of violent crime – particularly repeat victimisation associated with war-time experiences or living in an abusive relationship or household – can cause post-traumatic stress disorder and long-term depression as well as other mental health issues.
In this unit we shall:
Look more closely at the effects of being a victim of crime
Consider the mental health impacts of being a victim of sustained violent crime
Reflect upon the possibility of secondary victimisation by the Criminal Justice System and the wider society
Become familiar with some of the support networks that are available to victims of crime
Consider ways in which to mitigate the effects of criminal victimisation
On completion of this unit you will be able to:
Identify some of the effects of being a victim of crime
Be aware of the mental health impacts of being a victim of sustained violent crime
Recognise the possibility of secondary victimisation by the Criminal Justice System and the wider society
Be familiar with some of the support networks that are available to victims of crime
Identify ways in which to mitigate the effects of criminal victimisation
Unit 6: Crimes of the Powerful and Hidden Victims
This unit considers the crimes of the powerful and their victims. Specifically, organised crime (including trafficking of persons), corporate crime (including corruption and environmental crime) and state crime (including war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide) will be looked at.
Typical to many crimes of the powerful is the apparent absence or denial of the victim – the victim is often hidden, blameworthy or complicit in the crime. In effect this serves to disguise the enormity of the crime and limit responsibility for it. However, crimes of the powerful are often those crimes which cause the most extensive victimisation. They are often those crimes that evade detection and prosecution. This often leaves victims further victimised in the absence of justice, support and recognition.
In this unit we shall:
Consider what is meant by crimes of the powerful
Reflect upon organised crime, corporate crime and state crime
Consider the impact on victims of crimes of the powerful
Reflect upon the responses to crimes of the powerful
Examine whether responses to victims of crimes of the powerful are adequate
On completion of this unit you will be able to:
Recognise the nature and scope of organised and corporate crime
Understand what is meant by state crime
Further appreciate the impact on victims of crimes of the powerful
Assess the responses to crimes of the powerful
Evaluate whether responses to victims of crimes of the powerful are adequate
4) Unit 7 and 8
Unit 7: Victims in the Criminal Justice System
This unit considers how the police and other public services respond to the needs of victims of crime. The increasing level and nature of involvement of victims of crime in the criminal justice process will be looked at. In addition, the type of support, information, compensation and decision-making roles given to victims will be analysed.
The roles of different agencies, particularly how they vary over time and place, will also be looked at. This unit will also consider how to match service delivery to need, difficulties in assessing that need, and the development and work of victim services.
In this unit we shall:
Consider how the police and other public services respond to the needs of victims of crime
Consider how this has changed over time and place
Examine the type of support, information, compensation and decision-making roles given to victims
Analyse how to assess the need of victims
Reflect upon the development and work of victim services
On completion of this unit you will be able to:
Evaluate how the police and other public services respond to the needs of victims of crime
Articulate how this has changed over time and place
Assess the type of support, information, compensation and decision-making roles given to victims
Appreciate some of the difficulties of assessing the need of victims
Be familiar with the development and work of victim services
Unit 8: Justice for Victims
This unit reflects upon how victims of crime are treated in court, particularly where adversarial systems are in place. While improvements in treating victims in court over the recent past have been evident, notably since the introduction of the Victim’s Charter (now The Code of Practice for Victims of Crime), much is still be done to ensure the victim is not marginalised or further victimised during pre-trial, prosecution and sentencing proceedings. In this context, this unit also considers the roles, purpose and types of restitution and compensation as well as the value of restorative justice as a means of promoting a more victim-centred justice.
In this unit we shall:
Examine how victims are treated in court
Reflect upon recent developments in the treatment of victims in court
Think about what can be done to improve the treatment of victims during pre-trial, prosecution and sentencing proceedings
Examine the roles, purpose and types of restitution and compensation for victims of crime
Consider the value of restorative justice and the role of the victim therein
On completion of this unit you will be able to:
Evaluate how victims are treated in court
Be familiar with recent developments in the treatment of victims in court
Propose what can be done to improve the treatment of victims during pre-trial, prosecution and sentencing proceedings
Understand the roles, purpose and types of restitution and compensation for victims of crime
Assess the value of restorative justice and the role of the victim therein

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