Criminology

Paper 1 (15 %) – Position Analysis Paper: The Growth of Adult Corrections in the United States (7 pages, 6 peer reviewed references)

Background:  The growth of adult corrections in the United States is a critical issue for the correctional administrator as evidenced by a number of the readings in the first few weeks of this class. It is a perennial political policy issue for legislators, a difficult challenge for the executive branch of government, and a popular topic for the wide variety of news media available to the public today. Growth affects departmental policy, program opportunities and, most importantly, budget development. Although there are dramatic variations from state to state, there are clear trends that can be analyzed projecting future correctional growth. Even if no growth occurs in caseload, increases in the cost of inflation guarantees that the future budget will be larger than the current year appropriation.

Assignment: The objective of this assignment is to evaluate the history of U.S. correctional populations since 1980 and some conclusions regarding the probable impact of the trend you identify upon the U.S. correctional system and the criminal justice system if appropriate. Students are to use library resources to find at least three peer reviewed journal articles (or other reference documents once this minimum requirement is achieved) relating to the growth of adult corrections in the United States during this critical time period.  One of the purposes of this assignment is to develop the student’s ability to do graduate level research on a topic.

The paper must be a minimum of Seven pages. Please insure that you address the following issues in your essay:

  • the overall growth of adult correctional (prison) populations in the United States (keeping in mind that measurement is the key to this element);
  • Measurement definitions and related issues. (For example, if the general population increases during that period by a specific percentage and the prison population grows by the same percentage, there is really no “real” growth associated with that trend. It should be a population growth that is anticipated and funded).  Make sure that you identify and discuss the term “incarceration rate” in your analysis.
  • identification of the key factors associated with this growth pattern (what are the documented issues you can identify and cite that have fueled these changes);
  • the impact associated with this growth on correctional systems (notice this does not include generic sociological impacts);(1 Full page with subheading)
  • the possible solutions to correctional population growth or the continuing efforts associated with the relief of growth tendencies;
  • the probable results of the correctional growth trend you have identified. The issues highlighted in blue and bullet points must be addressed individually and a subheading be created for each to show the reader that we have properly addressed them. Please use academic sources and journals in this paper.

Paper 2 (15 %) – Research Paper: Budget Constraints (7 pages, 6 peer reviewed references)

Background: Fiscal management is one of the most important policy decisions that a top prison administrator must deal with in the course of employment. Fiscal management is a combination of budgeting skills, political acumen, and operational experience and understanding. The fiscal environment is very dynamic and altered by monetary realities, executive branch and legislative branch goals, judicial intervention, stakeholder pressure, operational realities, and operational (health and safety) necessities. The budget calendar is always in play and the prison chief executive’s job often depends on fiscal outcomes. Although at first blush it may appear that there are few options in managing fiscal resources, this is far from the truth. Great administrators are extremely creative and resourceful. They recognize that all options are always in play. The chief executive of the system relies upon each facility administrator to plan and submit a budget that will be included in the overall departmental presentation to the governor and ultimately to the legislature for review, negotiation and adjustment, and final fiscal authorization in the form of an overall budget bill. This is generally initiated in the house rather than the senate. Once approved, it is the chief executive’s responsibility to hold each administrator accountable for the overall implementation of the budget allotment for his or her facility. Assignment: You are the warden of a state department of corrections prison, responsible for operating the state prison under your command within the budget process. Your prison inmate count has increased each of the last five years and the prison is thus overcrowded. The legislature does not want to have a tax increase to fund the increasing corrections budget. The result is that your budget for the upcoming fiscal year has not increased with the exception of the inflationary increases to maintain the same budget levels as during the last year. The legislature has made it clear that the prison administrators must find a way to reduce the cost of operations over the previous year in order to operate within the current budget. Once the appropriation is approved by the legislature, there is no returning for a “second bite of the apple.” The budget negotiations are over until the next legislative cycle.

Your boss, the director/commissioner, has asked you to develop and implement a proactive plan to operate your facility for the next year within the budget restrictions funded by the legislature. If you fail to operate your facility within the appropriation, you will probably be removed from your position as a warden. Although you must reduce the increased budget needs, you must also still operate the prison in a safe and effective manner.

Discuss the steps you would take to operate within the legislatively approved budget. This essay must respond to this question. First, provide a solid, detailed discussion of the issues and challenges associated with this budgetary problem. Such a discussion might include (this is certainly not an exhaustive list) political realities, legal responsibilities, and some recognition of the extent of authority that the warden has both from a legal and a practical perspective. Second, discuss the options that appear to be available to you as the prison warden. Third, identify the options you intend to adopt. This paper must be a minimum of five pages and must include a plan to insure the budget realities are met.

This 7-page total does not include the title page and the reference page. Include some in-text citations to support your statements, but do not allow the citations to be the bulk of your explanation. Use the library to meet the minimum of three peer review (refereed) or scholarly journals. This exercise involves the examination of a very practical and real problem one can expect to face at the upper management levels.

Keep the following thoughts in mind while framing a response. Remember to avoid the use of personal pronouns, even though it may appear that this question requires a first person response. Do not use subheadings or lists to respond to this question. Discuss each option using graduate level rhetoric and transition from one recommendation to the next. Summarize all of the recommendations in the conclusion paragraph of the essay.

There are always many ways to approach this problem. Think outside the box if you have to. Consider the role of both the executive and legislative branch in the budget process. The past does not always dictate the future. Sometimes solutions demand approval from the director/commissioner and sometimes they do not. Are there any operational steps that might help relief the fiscal crisis? Every management decision at this level can generate new opportunities for an agency. Keep in mind that the yearly budget is similar to a home checkbook. You cannot overdraw the remaining balance, since that is illegal in most jurisdictions without legislative approval.

Since that money now has to go a little further than the previous year, you obviously need to find some operational ways to cut the facility spending. It would be helpful to start with a list of expenses such as staff salaries, staffing levels, medical costs, food costs, etc. Conduct research on what items are included in the operating budget for a facility. There may be solutions that would save the department money but would also take the approval and implementation by the system executive (the director or commissioner).

Do not suggest any ways to cut recidivism. This is a problem with your current budget (1 year) and no changes in sentencing laws or programs aimed at reducing recidivism can affect your current budget. If some solutions require departmental approval (director/commissioner) and are not under the warden’s complete control, discuss that. You do not have any money to spend for items not in the current budget. Do not suggest spending more money to save money unless the savings is immediate and the return can be demonstrated.

 

Paper 3 (15%) – Budget and Policy Realities:  Inmate Medical Care (7 pages, 5 References)

Background:  Paper #1 focused on the growth of adult correctional populations in the United States in general terms.  This paper will fine tune that discussion, and apply it to a practical, real world management problem facing every prison system.  This paper targets medical programs and specifically addresses the consideration of inmate populations, budget constraints and policy alternatives for top-level management to consider. The topic of this paper involves the thorny legal, fiscal and political policy arena of controlling inmate medical care cost.  The objective of this assignment is to apply what you have learned thus far concerning the impact of population and budget constraints on a specific program area within a prison system: medical care.

Background information for the essay:

The following real budget numbers from a prison system will be used for this exercise.  This reflects the results of budget negotiations that took place reducing the original budget request to insure that the state budget remained within the projected revenue, which is a requirement of state law.  This state cannot appropriate more funds than it receives in revenues (taxes are the bulk of the revenue). You may use the following data to illustrate your discussion and argument in this case.  This is an approximation of the budget expenses of what might be a typical small prison system.  These numbers add some reality to the essay and the question scenario. For example, you cannot exceed the annual budget of the institution.  There is always room to make adjustments, but those adjustments have to be articulated.  If a director/commissioner makes a decision that will increase the medical cost per inmate dramatically, then money must be transferred from one of the other categories into the medical budget or face the unpleasant reality  of having to appear before the legislature for a supplemental appropriation (which requires the Governor’s approval).

Prison average population:  13,696 inmates

Annual budget:  282.9 million dollars

Average yearly cost per inmate:  $20,656

Average yearly medical cost per inmate:  $3,544

 

ANATOMY OF THE PRISON BUDGET

75%        PERSONNEL (hiring, training and retention costs)

15%        MEDICAL   (total inmate medical expense)

5%        INMATE DRIVEN (items such as food and clothing which is allotted per inmate in the system)

2%        OPERATING AND ASSESSMENTS (utilities, etc.)

2%        BUILDING MAINTENANCE AND EQUIPMENT.  (Repairs, replacement , routine maintenance, etc.)

 

The Problem:

In a study of the screening results of a random population of 469 prisoners for the Hepatitis C Virus Infection (HCV) by Fox et al in 2015 of the California state correctional system, here are the article findings and conclusions (excuse the inability to indent these two paragraphs properly in this text box):

“Results. The prevalence of HCV infection was 34.3% overall (95% confidence interval [CI], 30%-38%) and was 65.7% among those with a history of injection drug use (IDU), compared with 10.2% among those with no history of IDU (odds ratio [OR], 17.24; 95% CI, 10.52-28.25). Significant differences in HCV antibody positivity were found in association with age at first detention but not with the nature of the crime. Independent correlates of HCV infection included age, history of IDU, cumulative time of incarceration, biological sex (OR for females subjects compared with males subjects, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.13-0.96), and a history of having sex with a male IDU (OR, 4.42; 95% CI, 1.46-13.37). We identified significant differences in risk factors between male and female subjects-notably, that the risk of HCV infection was significantly elevated among female non-IDUs who reported having sexual partners with a history of IDU. Among non-IDUs, correlates of HCV infection included history of receipt of blood products and cumulative years of incarceration.

Conclusions. HCV infection is pervasive among the California prison population, including prisoners who are non-IDUs and women with high-risk sexual behavior. These results should promote consideration of routine HCV antibody screening and behavioral interventions among incarcerated men and women.”  (p. 177)

” A US population-based survey showed that 1.8% of the general population has been infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) [1]. This study, however, omitted incar- cerated persons, among whom the prevalence of HCV infection is projected to be much higher, because many of them originate from high-risk backgrounds and have a history of risk behaviors for bloodborne infection- in particular, injection drug use (IDU). Addressing the risk behaviors and medical needs of the incarcerated population is important because the frequency of in- carceration is alarmingly high. In 2002, in the United States > 2 million people were in prison or jail (1 of every 146 persons), and > 4.5 million people were on probation or parole. It is projected that 1 of every 20 individuals in the United States will serve time in jail or prison during their lifetime.”  (p. 177)

Use this infection rate for the purposes of this question.

The Hepatitis C Virus Infection (HCV) is a very slow developing virus and most often one is not symptomatic.  There are cures for this virus now, and they are expensive.  There are cures, but no vaccines against future infection.  Thus, the rate of infection with injection drug use of other high-risk behavior may be important to this question.

Assignment:   Research the cost for a vaccine for Hep C (there are a number available) and then respond to the following issues in an essay that is a minimum of 5 pages of text with at least 3 peer review or academic journals.  Remember not to use an abstract or subheadings and do not simply “list” responses to these issues.  Include them in a thoughtful essay response:

  • Would you screen all inmates coming into the system for this disease? Do not discuss that you would implement medical examinations for all incoming inmates. Every state already does this. Medical examinations are included in the current operational costs of every system. Screening for a particular disease is a different issue with unique costs.  Some systems test for this disease and some do not. That is worthy of discussion.
  • How would you medically respond to inmates who test positive for Hep C or are symptomatic for the disease?  There is a distinct difference between these two issues.
  • Consider the cost of this treatment based upon the budget numbers provided in this question.
  • Insure you are aware of the need to remain within budget constraints and analyze what this would do to your budget request.
  • Consider who you would not treat and why.  (if any).
  • These vaccines can in fact cure the disease but they cannot protect from future infection.  Does this aspect of treatment affect your decision on testing and treatment?
  • Do not discuss private insurance for individual inmates to pay for testing or treatment. Some students mention this and treatment must be provided by the state or the Federal government.  Only discuss the costs associated for the inmates who are in the prison, not the ones who are released on parole. These are two separate budgets entirely, and rarely is medical care provided for parolees.  At that point, they may take advantage of private insurance or public programs such as Medicaid, the Affordable Care Act, etc.
  • Do not waste time discussing the fact that prisons must provide adequate medical care.  That is a given and every state does provide medical care.  The question here would be at what point is an administrator legally required to provide care and what level of care must be provided for this particular disease.  If you discuss the concept of inadequate medical care or deliberate indifference, insure that you provide a proper legal definition of the terms and cite a reputable source for the definitions (do not rely upon a web site for a definition such as this).

 

This is a real medical and budget crisis that faces upper management in correctional facilities. The Eighth Amendment protections must be balanced against the availability of funding.  How do you provide adequate medical care and still provide a rational and cost effective delivery of medical care?  You may want to consider the rationale of community standards in a case like this.  Remember not to include any charts or graphs or to use subheadings. This is an essay so use good rhetoric to make your point.

References:

Fox, R., Currie, S., Evans, J., Wright, T., Tobler, L., Phelps, B., Busch, M., & Page-Shafer, K.  (2015, July).  Hepatitis C virus infection among prisoners in the California state correctional system.  Clinical Infectious Diseases, 41(2), 177-186.

 

CJMS 620 Assignment 4 (7 full pages, 6 references)

Background:  The events of 9/11 resulted in new interest regarding threat groups and a renewed vigilance for the potential violence and disruption of civil society from prison gangs.  Prison gangs have proven to be a rich breeding ground for terrorist recruitment (radicalization) as well as a serious corrections problem that saps fiscal, personnel, and physical facility resources from correctional systems. All correctional administrators need to address the threat of such groups in the facility, which encourages further study of this important criminal justice issue.

Assignment: The objective of this assignment is to select one (1) of the prison threat groups listed below from those operating in an adult U.S. state prison system of your choice with one exception. You may not select the State of Maryland.

  • Aryan Brotherhood
  • Black Guerilla Family
  • Mexican Mafia
  • NuestraFamilia
  • Mara Salvatrucha

Provide background information including the history and development of this group including an emphasis on the history and development within the state you have chosen to investigate. For example, if a gang began in a state such as California (as the Aryan Brotherhood did) then there should be a detailed section concerning the history and development in California.  If you are researching another state, however, then you should also discuss how that gang began and developed in this other state under study (this speaks to proliferation of the gang).  This discussion would include the membership characteristics, gang goals, mission, reason for the group’s existence, etc.  This is a good issue to use peer review journals in addition to the departmental web sites for documentation.  Avoid web sites with no authors, etc. because there is no way to confirm or challenge that data.  Evaluate the degree to which this group is a threat to that prison system and the communities of the particular state you have selected for study. Discuss the strategy used in that state to identify and control gang membership and activity. In addition, discuss a variety of options and strategies used by at least two other specific states you must name (best practices) to control and contain threat groups. Identify the names of their programs, names of their specific databases, etc. Be specific in their approach to gang control.  Finally, arrive at a conclusion as to whether the current strategy is working in the jurisdiction you have selected for study and provide any alternative approaches that have a proven track record that the state should consider. (These alternative approaches would come from the other states you have considered). To this end, the instructions for this assignment follow:

Students are to use library resources to find at least Five peer review, academic or refereed journal articles (or other reference documents once this minimum requirement is achieved) which can be used to identify and validate the history and characteristics of the selected threat group, definitions of threat groups (gangs), or the variety of strategies implemented to contain and control threat groups in a prison environment. It is also recommended that you document the management approach from the web site and rules and regulations of the agency you are studying as well as possible statutes implemented to assist in gang control. One of the purposes of this assignment is to develop the student’s ability to do graduate level research on this topic. The essay must be a minimum of SEVEN complete pages of text.  You may not use an abstract or any subheadings in your essay.  The title page and the reference page(s) do not apply to this minimum requirement. This is an exercise in academic research, graduate level thinking and academic writing ability. Do not discuss jail gangs at all in this essay.  This essay is focused on prison gangs which may be quite different in operation and controls from a jail system.  The laws governing detention facilities can be quite different from a prison that houses convicted felons. Do not discuss juvenile gangs in this essay.  This course focuses on adult corrections.

The following elements should be included in your essay’s rhetoric (Remember not to use any subheadings! These are identified merely to assist you in developing a framework for your response).

  • Cover page: Include the title of the paper, your name, class title and date of submission. Please see the sample essay provided in the Course Content for additional assistance. Remember not to use an abstract!
  • Introductory paragraph(s): Make an introductory statement about the topic of your paper and what threat group you intend to examine. These first paragraphs should provide the purpose of your paper (the thesis).  This is also an excellent place to define your terms such as prison threat group, prison gang, etc.  Avoid using generic dictionaries.  Federal research sites can be useful here where definitions are often included in their studies.
  • Rhetorical content: discuss the history of the group (perhaps some definition and history of prison gangs). Include a discussion of the strategy employed by the state under study to identify membership and to control gang activity. What strategies does the research of at least two other specific states recommend and to what degree have they been effective? How do they differ and where have the competing strategies been ineffective? How do you measure program success for an intervention program such as this?
  • Conclusion content:  This paragraph(s) is based on your research. Based on your analysis of the threat group, the articles and their conclusions, and information regarding the efforts of the jurisdiction under study, what are your conclusions as to the solutions currently in place?  Can you provide a viable alternative if you are not satisfied with the status quo? Remember not to have a subheading of “Conclusion” etc. Just move right into the final discussion and let your rhetoric carry the day. Your choice of wording will make the conclusion clear to the reading.  The better your writing, the clearer your conclusion will be to the reader.

Reference Page: References must be correctly cited on a separate reference page in perfect APA format.

Final Examination (12 pages, 9 peer review references) – Defining Recidivism and the Impact of that Definition on Conclusions regarding Program Effectiveness

In the classic and frequently cited article “What Works? Questions and Answers about Prison Reform”, Robert Martinson (1974) evaluated over 200 programs, treatments and other interventions in correctional institutions and he concluded, “nothing works”.   Martinson’s  conclusion had a direct impact on the correctional investment in programs and the subsequent shift from the “medical model”  adopted by corrections in the 70s in favor of the warehousing and incapacitation model more prevalent in the 80’s and 90’s.  This shift away from the medical model resulted in a corresponding decrease in the investment in correctional programs.  Many contend that the direct consequence was the dramatic increase in the correctional population leading to overcrowding and increasingly scarce fiscal resources.  A complex meeting of policy issues surrounding budgeting, resources, and social pressure has resulted in a change in direction once more with the mission focus of many jurisdictions on reduction in recidivism and reintegration programs.  Some content that the social direction for corrections has come full circle and the country is once again in the 1970’s policy mindset.  Jurisdictions are once again searching for and implementing effective programs in a correctional setting for a variety of   reasons that were the subject of further study in week 11.  The “Second Chance Act of 2007” (enacted April 9, 2008 by President Bush) has added philosophical fuel and funding opportunities to that search.   There has been an increased emphasis on the performance of correctional systems in producing a “better product” (i.e. an inmate who has improved skills as a result of his incarceration).  Lawmakers and correctional stakeholders  are now realizing that inmates ill prepared for reentry into their communities create a public safety risk and a public cost burden, and a variety of mega-studies have demonstrated that some programs do in fact “work”.  Ed Latessa is one of the champions of research measuring the concept of the “bang for the buck” in identifying programs that demonstrate outcomes that “work”.  As with any philosophy, there are also many who still contend that no matter what programs one implements, or how much money is spent, there will be no difference in the recidivism rate over time.  Included in the topics of study this semester are concepts of vision and mission, strategic planning and the budget process as.  Recidivism is a central issue for these program and policy arenas and it is a term that enjoys wide acceptance as a measuring stick for program success.  It is also a term that is elusive to many practitioners and a critical step in any valid study of program outcome must define recidivism at the very start of any program implementation.   It is obvious that there is not always universal agreement between the stakeholders as to the actual definition of the term “recidivism.”

What does it mean to say that a program “works”?  How does one define the measure of success in a correctional intervention?  How can correctional systems ensure that program monitors are measuring the proper outcomes to make conclusions regarding program success or failure?  While correctional administrators are rarely researchers, they are consumers of research and it is important to understand what questions to ask and how to define terms to insure that those questions are being answered correctly and usefully. Most importantly, the program outcomes are needed to report to the legislature that funds the programs and to the chief executive (generally the Governor) who has supported the agency efforts.   Directors/commissioners of correctional agencies must be confident that scarce fiscal resources will only be spent on programs that are effective, efficient, and result in accomplishing the mission, vision, and strategic plan for the program and agency.  The agencies need to define terms and analyze similar program outcomes before proposing new programs, continuing existing programs, exploring alternative interventions, or recommending the elimination of existing programs which the administrators determine “don’t work.    It is critical to avoid investing in programs proven ineffectual in managing and preparing offenders for reentry.  Wasting public dollars in today’s economy will only result in the inevitable wrath of political and public criticism over program failure and for the top administrator, often the loss of employment.  Correctional administrators are usually appointed public officials and when the public or the legislature loses confidence in that stewardship, it generally translates into a resignation and subsequent search for an administrator who can deliver the fiscal economy and programmatic results they are looking for.  Although most administrators serve at the pleasure of the Governor, a Governor will almost always request that resignation before the program failure reflects on the Office of the Governor.  That is why this issue is important to study in coursework leading to an advanced degree in criminal justice management.

Almost every study dealing with the success or failure of a correctional program includes the discussion and measurement of recidivism.  There are many alternative definitions of recidivism to consider.    As a pragmatic professional, keep in mind that no matter what the rhetoric is by those who develop correctional policy, the fiscal effect on the system is really the bottom line.  Few programs survive that do not demonstrate that fewer offenders return to prison which drives up the demand for bed space and the ultimate cost of the correctional system.  This is referred to generically as the “recidivism rate.”  It is arguably one of the most important measures of success that lead to what has been called the most “bang for the buck.”  As you will see, however, recidivism is a very elusive term and it is so important that this class will study the issue of recidivism in detail prior to arriving at the last week’s main topic of “what works in corrections.”  This term is bandied about in the media and during legislative hearings with little understanding of the essential parameters that must be defined before making program decisions.  As a criminal justice professional, it is time to study this term in detail.   It may be one of the few times you have the luxury of focusing so intently on the recidivism issue.

The final exam is worth 25% of the total class grade and thus it requires that the student put forth the best effort possible with a deliverable that demonstrates graduate level writing and research ability.  The paper should be written using proper American Psychological Association (APA) format.  There are a few exceptions to the APA format that will apply to this essay:

  1. Do not write an “abstract” of the essay.  An abstract merely wastes space on a short essay such as this that is not designed for publication.
  2. Do not use subheadings in this essay.

This essay examines how outcomes or success is defined in the correctional literature.  There are many outcome measures, but this essay will focus on only one measure: recidivism.  Recidivism has become the most accepted outcome measure. Why has this become the most accepted outcome?  Many studies utilize recidivism as a measure they do not always define it in the same way. Why are there alternative definitions of this term?   This examination  should answer these two questions and additionally explore  the various definitions of recidivism and the dimensions that impact each definition, how changing the definition impacts the results found and recommendations for administrators in reading program outcome studies and for researchers on the future. In the conclusion of the essay, insure that a preferred definition of recidivism is arrived at that you would consider adopting in the measurement of program outcomes if you were the administrator of a correctional system.  The outcome must be consistent with the mission, vision and strategic plan of your agency.  Please remember not to restate the assignment parameters discussed in this document at the beginning of the essay. That would merely waste valuable space in the essay.  Simply begin with the thesis statements in the first paragraph or two and move on to develop the essay.

The submitted examination must be a minimum of 10 pages. This examination should be minimally 10 pages in length, double-spaced and adhere to all relevant APA guidelines as previously mentioned, and submitted according to the directions given in your syllabus and the guidance you have received.   An essay that is less than 10 pages will be unacceptable and receive a deduction of ten percent (10%) which is the equivalent of 2.5 points for every page less than 10 full pages of text. The cover sheet and the reference page(s) do not apply to this total.   If any deduction is taken for a paper that does not meet the minimum requirement for length, this will be the starting grade point, and then the paper will be read and deductions taken from that score. If, for an example, a paper is submitted that includes only  9 pages of text, then the starting grade is reduced from 25 points to  22.5  points and any  further deductions will be taken from that total possible score  as the paper is read and scored.    Please do not write an essay greater than 15 pages exclusive of the title page and reference material.  A rich topic such as this could easily result in a very lengthy essay, but it is important to be able to focus and complete this assignment within the parameters that are provided.  As previously stated, the cover page and reference age are not included in the page count.  You are required to utilize and provide at least five academic references (peer review, refereed, or academic journals) in this essay as defined by the ulrichsweb resource that can be found in the library link and is discussed in the course content. The five (5) articles selected to meet this requirement must not be from the same journal. Once that minimum is met, articles from the same journal may be utilized freely.  Remember to revisit the reference provided in the course content and conferences regarding the definition of peer review, refereed and academic journals before completing this assignment.  There shall be no use of web site references in this essay.  This is purely an exercise in academic research and graduate level thinking and writing ability.

This essay exam must be submitted in the grade book using Word software as required in the syllabus and by UMUC.  Please remember to avoid the use of personal pronouns (I, me, you, we, etc.) in your essay.  This issue has been discussed initially in the syllabus and repeated in numerous areas of the course content. The use of such pronouns will reflect upon the tone of the essay up to a deduction of a maximum of five percent (5%) which is the equivalent of 1.25 points. As with the length of the paper, this deduction will be taken at the beginning of the scoring process and then other deductions will apply.  The paper will be done completely n New Times Roman with 12-point font and double-spaced.  Do not insert multiple hard returns between paragraphs.

 

 

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